Law by ASEAN members
Computer Laws in ASEAN Countries
asean map
Brunei iconBrunei has the Computer Misuse Act 2007. The content of such law is not very different from Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550. What is different is that Brunei’s law allows an authority to arrest any person without a warrant under reasonable circumstance that he may have committed the crime.
Indonesia iconIndonesia does not have any specific law related directly to computer crimes but has adopted Law Number 11 Year 2008 concerning Electronic Transaction and Information: ITE Law as an instrument to manage with electronics data. The law is quite similar to Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550 in the aspects of definitions and some offences such as unauthorized access and interception. Some of the Indonesia’s cyber laws cover child pornography and copyright infringement. Moreover, Indonesia plans to ratify EU Convention on Cybercrime in order to complete its ITE Law and to promote international cooperation on cyber crime prevention.
Cambodia iconCambodia does not any specific law related directly to computer crimes either. What it does have is the Regulations on Registration of Domain Names for Internet. However, recently, Cambodia is drafting the Cybercrime Law where its main offences are quite similar to those of Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550 such as unauthorized access, data espionage, unauthorized modification of computer data and data forgery. There are also some provisions that are different, for instance, child pornography and intellectual property protection.
Lao iconLaos Government has the policy to promote Information and Communication Technology Sector as a tool to develop economy and society by drafting new laws to manage and improve ICT such as intellectual property law, telecommunication law, E-transaction law, and criminal law, including establishing LaoCERT (Lao Computer Emergency Response Team) to deal with computer and internet security. Laos, however, does not have any laws related to computer crimes but plans to draft one soon.
Mynmar iconMyanmar does not have any specific law related directly to computer crimes. It is still unknown that when such law will be drafted, approved or effective. Myanmar, however, has adopted the Electronic Transactions Law of 2004 which is modeled on the UN Model Law and has also adopted the Computer Science Development Law 1996 which Myanmar aims to develop and disseminate computer science and technology.
Malaysia iconMalaysia has Computer Crimes Act 1997 which its offences and interpretation available in PART I and PART II are similar to Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550. Some offence that is different from Thailand is an unauthorized access with intent to commit or facilitate commission of further offence which a person committing shall be punished by harsher punishment. The law also provides an absolute presumption where any person who has in his custody or control any data which is held in any computer or retrieved from any computer which he is not authorized to have in his custody or control shall be deemed to have obtained unauthorized access to such data. Successful prosecutions under the Computer Crimes Act are very low.
Philippines iconPhilippines has the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 where its offences are similar to Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550. Nevertheless, there are some differences. Acquisition of a domain name without right or intellectual property right is deemed as an offence according to the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012, but according to Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550, this is not an offence. Libel via computer system is also an offence in Philippines’ law, where in Thailand, the court interprets Section 14 (1) of Computer Crime Act B.E.2550 as an offence of defamation.
Singapore iconSingapore has the Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act of 1993 which its goal is to prevent computer data from any unauthorized access and modification and to create cyber security. Its general offences are similar to those of Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550, for instance, unauthorized access to computer data or system, unauthorized inception, and unauthorized disclosure. Criminal punishment of such law is harsher than Thailand’s computer law. A person who is guilty of an offence shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding SGD10,000 or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years, or both where, based on Thailand’s computer law, A person who is guilty shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding 40,000 baht (SGD1,600) or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years, or both. As of today, Singapore is reviewing the policy and legislative framework for cyber security which is important for the country to move towards its Smart Nation vision.
Thailand icon- Unauthorized access (Sec.5)
- Unauthorized modification(Sec.9)
- Dissemination of illegal content (Sec.14)
- ISP liability(Sec.15)
- Image modification in a manner likely to cause damage to others (Sec.16)


www icon   Reference link.
Vietnam iconIn the past years, Vietnam has many cyber-related laws and regulations that had been scattered like the Law on Information Technology, the Law on Telecommunications and the Law on E-Transactions. However, in November 2015, Vietnam has passed the Law on Cyber-Information Security: LCIS which will come into effect in July 2016. This Law concerning telecommunication and computer network data exchanging aims to ensure safety and security of cyber data, personal and trade data and prevent viruses and other harmful software.
Source: Ministry of Digital Economy and Society (Thailand)
Related law
Related law in Brunei
- Not found law data. -
Brunei iconBrunei has the Computer Misuse Act 2007. The content of such law is not very different from Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550. What is different is that Brunei’s law allows an authority to arrest any person without a warrant under reasonable circumstance that he may have committed the crime.

Related law in Cambodia
- Not found law data. -
Cambodia iconCambodia does not any specific law related directly to computer crimes either. What it does have is the Regulations on Registration of Domain Names for Internet. However, recently, Cambodia is drafting the Cybercrime Law where its main offences are quite similar to those of Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550 such as unauthorized access, data espionage, unauthorized modification of computer data and data forgery. There are also some provisions that are different, for instance, child pornography and intellectual property protection.

Related law in Indonesia
- Not found law data. -
Indonesia iconIndonesia does not have any specific law related directly to computer crimes but has adopted Law Number 11 Year 2008 concerning Electronic Transaction and Information: ITE Law as an instrument to manage with electronics data. The law is quite similar to Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550 in the aspects of definitions and some offences such as unauthorized access and interception. Some of the Indonesia’s cyber laws cover child pornography and copyright infringement. Moreover, Indonesia plans to ratify EU Convention on Cybercrime in order to complete its ITE Law and to promote international cooperation on cyber crime prevention.

Related law in Laos
- Not found law data. -
Lao iconLaos Government has the policy to promote Information and Communication Technology Sector as a tool to develop economy and society by drafting new laws to manage and improve ICT such as intellectual property law, telecommunication law, E-transaction law, and criminal law, including establishing LaoCERT (Lao Computer Emergency Response Team) to deal with computer and internet security. Laos, however, does not have any laws related to computer crimes but plans to draft one soon.

Related law in Malaysia
- Not found law data. -
Malaysia iconMalaysia has Computer Crimes Act 1997 which its offences and interpretation available in PART I and PART II are similar to Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550. Some offence that is different from Thailand is an unauthorized access with intent to commit or facilitate commission of further offence which a person committing shall be punished by harsher punishment. The law also provides an absolute presumption where any person who has in his custody or control any data which is held in any computer or retrieved from any computer which he is not authorized to have in his custody or control shall be deemed to have obtained unauthorized access to such data. Successful prosecutions under the Computer Crimes Act are very low.

Related law in Myanmar
- Not found law data. -
Mynmar iconMyanmar does not have any specific law related directly to computer crimes. It is still unknown that when such law will be drafted, approved or effective. Myanmar, however, has adopted the Electronic Transactions Law of 2004 which is modeled on the UN Model Law and has also adopted the Computer Science Development Law 1996 which Myanmar aims to develop and disseminate computer science and technology.

Related law in Philippines
- Not found law data. -
Philippines iconPhilippines has the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 where its offences are similar to Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550. Nevertheless, there are some differences. Acquisition of a domain name without right or intellectual property right is deemed as an offence according to the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012, but according to Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550, this is not an offence. Libel via computer system is also an offence in Philippines’ law, where in Thailand, the court interprets Section 14 (1) of Computer Crime Act B.E.2550 as an offence of defamation.

Related law in Singapore
- Not found law data. -
Singapore iconSingapore has the Computer Misuse and Cybersecurity Act of 1993 which its goal is to prevent computer data from any unauthorized access and modification and to create cyber security. Its general offences are similar to those of Thailand’s Computer Crime Act B.E.2550, for instance, unauthorized access to computer data or system, unauthorized inception, and unauthorized disclosure. Criminal punishment of such law is harsher than Thailand’s computer law. A person who is guilty of an offence shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding SGD10,000 or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 years, or both where, based on Thailand’s computer law, A person who is guilty shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding 40,000 baht (SGD1,600) or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years, or both. As of today, Singapore is reviewing the policy and legislative framework for cyber security which is important for the country to move towards its Smart Nation vision.

Related law in Thailand
Thailand icon- Unauthorized access (Sec.5)
- Unauthorized modification(Sec.9)
- Dissemination of illegal content (Sec.14)
- ISP liability(Sec.15)
- Image modification in a manner likely to cause damage to others (Sec.16)




www icon   Reference link.
Related law in Vietnam
- Not found law data. -
Vietnam iconIn the past years, Vietnam has many cyber-related laws and regulations that had been scattered like the Law on Information Technology, the Law on Telecommunications and the Law on E-Transactions. However, in November 2015, Vietnam has passed the Law on Cyber-Information Security: LCIS which will come into effect in July 2016. This Law concerning telecommunication and computer network data exchanging aims to ensure safety and security of cyber data, personal and trade data and prevent viruses and other harmful software.

Environmental Laws in ASEAN
asean map
Brunei iconNo description.

Brunei
EIA

Indonesia icon

Indonesia
EIA, SEA

Cambodia icon

Cambodia
EIA

Lao icon

Laos
EIA, SEA

Mynmar iconNo description.

Myanmar
EIA

Malaysia icon

Malaysia
EIA

Philippines iconNo description.

Philippines
EIA, EHIA

Thailand iconNo description.

Thailand
EIA, EHIA

Vietnam iconNo description.

Vietnam
EIA, SEA

Source: Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (Thailand)
More information: See detail
Related law
Related law in Brunei
- Not found law data. -
Brunei iconNo description.

Brunei
EIA

Related law in Cambodia
- Not found law data. -
Cambodia icon

Cambodia
EIA

Related law in Indonesia
- Not found law data. -
Indonesia icon

Indonesia
EIA, SEA

Related law in Laos
- Not found law data. -
Lao icon

Laos
EIA, SEA

Related law in Malaysia
- Not found law data. -
Malaysia icon

Malaysia
EIA

Related law in Myanmar
- Not found law data. -
Mynmar iconNo description.

Myanmar
EIA

Related law in Philippines
- Not found law data. -
Philippines iconNo description.

Philippines
EIA, EHIA

Related law in Thailand
Thailand iconNo description.


Thailand
EIA, EHIA

Related law in Vietnam
- Not found law data. -
Vietnam iconNo description.

Vietnam
EIA, SEA

The passengers are not obliged to pay duty
asean map
Brunei icon- 2 bottles of alcoholic beverages (liquor), 12 cans of beer
- Every cigarette enter this country must be declared and duty must be paid at B$0.25 per stick.


www icon   Reference link.

Brunei
2 bottles of alcoholic

Indonesia icon- tobacco products (no limitations for diplomats): 200 cigarettes or 25 cigars or 100 grams of tobacco;
- 1 litre of liquor;


www icon   Reference link.

Indonesia
1 liter of liquor

Cambodia icon- Cigarette not exceeding 200 cigarettes, Cigar not exceeding 50 Cigars or Tobacco not exceeding 200 grams
- All kinds of alcohol not exceeding 2 liters


www icon   Reference link.

Cambodia
Liquor <2 liter

Lao icon- 1 liters of sprits and 2 liters of wine
- 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 grams of tobacco


www icon   Reference link.

Laos
Sprits <1 liter

Mynmar icon- Varieties of liquor not more than 2 litres
- Not more than 400 cigarettes. Not more than 50 cigars. Pipe tobacco not more than 250 gm


www icon   Reference link.

Myanmar
Liquor <2 liter

Malaysia icon- Wine/spirit/malt/liquor not exceeding 1 liter.
- Tobacco not exceeding 225 grams (equal to 200 sticks of cigarettes).


www icon   Reference link.

Malaysia
Liquor <1 liter

Philippines icon- Cigarettes: two (2) reams. Tobacco: two (2) tins
- Liquor and/or wine: two (2) bottles


www icon   Reference link.

Philippines
Liquor,Wine <2 bottles

Singapore icon- Alcohol: 1 liter of wine, 1 liter of spirits and 1 liter of beer; 2 liters of wine and 1 liter of beer; or 1 liter of wine and 2 liters of beer**
- Tobacco: All tobacco products must be declared upon arrival
**This duty free allowance does not apply to travelers arriving from Malaysia.


www icon   Reference link.

Singapore
Wine,Spirit,Beer <1 liter

Thailand iconNo description.

www icon   Reference link.

Thailand
1 liter of liquor

Vietnam icon- Cigarettes: 400 Cigars: 100 Tobacco: 100 gram
- Liquor: 1.5 liters


www icon   Reference link.

Vietnam
1.5 liter of liquor

Source: Ministry of Finance (Thailand)
Related law
Related law in Brunei
- Not found law data. -
Brunei icon- 2 bottles of alcoholic beverages (liquor), 12 cans of beer
- Every cigarette enter this country must be declared and duty must be paid at B$0.25 per stick.



www icon   Reference link.

Brunei
2 bottles of alcoholic

Related law in Cambodia
- Not found law data. -
Cambodia icon- Cigarette not exceeding 200 cigarettes, Cigar not exceeding 50 Cigars or Tobacco not exceeding 200 grams
- All kinds of alcohol not exceeding 2 liters



www icon   Reference link.

Cambodia
Liquor <2 liter

Related law in Indonesia
- Not found law data. -
Indonesia icon- tobacco products (no limitations for diplomats): 200 cigarettes or 25 cigars or 100 grams of tobacco;
- 1 litre of liquor;



www icon   Reference link.

Indonesia
1 liter of liquor

Related law in Laos
- Not found law data. -
Lao icon- 1 liters of sprits and 2 liters of wine
- 200 cigarettes or 50 cigars or 250 grams of tobacco



www icon   Reference link.

Laos
Sprits <1 liter

Related law in Malaysia
- Not found law data. -
Malaysia icon- Wine/spirit/malt/liquor not exceeding 1 liter.
- Tobacco not exceeding 225 grams (equal to 200 sticks of cigarettes).



www icon   Reference link.

Malaysia
Liquor <1 liter

Related law in Myanmar
- Not found law data. -
Mynmar icon- Varieties of liquor not more than 2 litres
- Not more than 400 cigarettes. Not more than 50 cigars. Pipe tobacco not more than 250 gm



www icon   Reference link.

Myanmar
Liquor <2 liter

Related law in Philippines
- Not found law data. -
Philippines icon- Cigarettes: two (2) reams. Tobacco: two (2) tins
- Liquor and/or wine: two (2) bottles



www icon   Reference link.

Philippines
Liquor,Wine <2 bottles

Related law in Singapore
- Not found law data. -
Singapore icon- Alcohol: 1 liter of wine, 1 liter of spirits and 1 liter of beer; 2 liters of wine and 1 liter of beer; or 1 liter of wine and 2 liters of beer**
- Tobacco: All tobacco products must be declared upon arrival
**This duty free allowance does not apply to travelers arriving from Malaysia.



www icon   Reference link.

Singapore
Wine,Spirit,Beer <1 liter

Related law in Thailand
Thailand iconNo description.



www icon   Reference link.

Thailand
1 liter of liquor

Related law in Vietnam
- Not found law data. -
Vietnam icon- Cigarettes: 400 Cigars: 100 Tobacco: 100 gram
- Liquor: 1.5 liters



www icon   Reference link.

Vietnam
1.5 liter of liquor

Water Quality Standard
asean map
Brunei iconNo description.
Indonesia icon
Cambodia icon
Lao icon
Mynmar iconNo description.
Malaysia icon
Philippines iconNo description.
Singapore iconNo description.
Thailand iconNo description.
Vietnam iconNo description.
Source: Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (Thailand)
More information: See detail
Related law
Related law in Brunei
- Not found law data. -
Brunei iconNo description.

Related law in Cambodia
- Not found law data. -
Cambodia icon

Related law in Indonesia
- Not found law data. -
Indonesia icon

Related law in Laos
- Not found law data. -
Lao icon

Related law in Malaysia
- Not found law data. -
Malaysia icon

Related law in Myanmar
- Not found law data. -
Mynmar iconNo description.

Related law in Philippines
- Not found law data. -
Philippines iconNo description.

Related law in Singapore
- Not found law data. -
Singapore iconNo description.

Related law in Thailand
- Not found law data. -
Thailand iconNo description.


Related law in Vietnam
- Not found law data. -
Vietnam iconNo description.

Punishments in ASEAN Countries
asean map
Brunei icon1. Death penalty
2. Imprisonment
3. Forfeiture of Property
4. Fine
5. Whipping
6. Punishment from Shariah Penal Code Order, 2013 (i.e. death penalty, stoning to death, amputation of hand/foot)
Indonesia icon1. Capital punishment
2. Imprisonment
3. Fine
4. Four additional penalties (deprivation of certain rights, forfeiture of specific property, publication of judicial verdict)
Cambodia icon1. Imprisonment
2. Fine
3. Nineteen additional penalties (i.e. deprivation of certain rights, prohibition of certain activities, forfeiture of property)
Lao icon1. Public criticism
2. Re-education without deprivation of liberty
3. Deprivation of liberty (Imprisonment)
4. Death penalty
5. Five additional penalties (i.e. fine, forfeiture of items or properties)
Mynmar icon1. Death penalty
2. Transportion
3. Imprisonment
4. Fine
Malaysia icon1. Death penalty
2. Imprisonment
3. Whipping
Philippines icon1. Death penalty
2. Imprisonment
3. Fine
4. Additional penalties (i.e. Suspension from public office, the right to follow a profession; disqualification from the right of suffrage)
Singapore icon1. Death penalty
2. Imprisonment
3. Forfeiture of property
4. Fine
5. Caning
Thailand icon1. Death penalty
2. Imprisonment
3. Confinement
4. Fine
5. Forfeiture of property

Vietnam icon1. Warning
2. Fine
3. Non-custodial reform
4. Expulsion
5. Imprisonment
6. Death penalty
7. Seven additional penalties (i.e. probation, fines, deprivation of some rights)
Source: Ministry of Justice (Thailand)
More information: See detail
Related law
Related law in Brunei
- Not found law data. -
Brunei icon1. Death penalty
2. Imprisonment
3. Forfeiture of Property
4. Fine
5. Whipping
6. Punishment from Shariah Penal Code Order, 2013 (i.e. death penalty, stoning to death, amputation of hand/foot)

Related law in Cambodia
- Not found law data. -
Cambodia icon1. Imprisonment
2. Fine
3. Nineteen additional penalties (i.e. deprivation of certain rights, prohibition of certain activities, forfeiture of property)

Related law in Indonesia
- Not found law data. -
Indonesia icon1. Capital punishment
2. Imprisonment
3. Fine
4. Four additional penalties (deprivation of certain rights, forfeiture of specific property, publication of judicial verdict)

Related law in Laos
- Not found law data. -
Lao icon1. Public criticism
2. Re-education without deprivation of liberty
3. Deprivation of liberty (Imprisonment)
4. Death penalty
5. Five additional penalties (i.e. fine, forfeiture of items or properties)

Related law in Malaysia
- Not found law data. -
Malaysia icon1. Death penalty
2. Imprisonment
3. Whipping

Related law in Myanmar
- Not found law data. -
Mynmar icon1. Death penalty
2. Transportion
3. Imprisonment
4. Fine

Related law in Philippines
- Not found law data. -
Philippines icon1. Death penalty
2. Imprisonment
3. Fine
4. Additional penalties (i.e. Suspension from public office, the right to follow a profession; disqualification from the right of suffrage)

Related law in Singapore
- Not found law data. -
Singapore icon1. Death penalty
2. Imprisonment
3. Forfeiture of property
4. Fine
5. Caning

Related law in Thailand
Thailand icon1. Death penalty
2. Imprisonment
3. Confinement
4. Fine
5. Forfeiture of property



Related law in Vietnam
- Not found law data. -
Vietnam icon1. Warning
2. Fine
3. Non-custodial reform
4. Expulsion
5. Imprisonment
6. Death penalty
7. Seven additional penalties (i.e. probation, fines, deprivation of some rights)

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